Chairs: Jorge Muniz de Souza Mortean (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil), Eli Alves Penha (State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and André Roberto Martin (University of São Paulo, Brazil)
The seas and oceans have acquired increasing importance for contemporary societies. At the national level, issues such as the use of resources fisheries and minerals, maritime safety, ecological balance and trade are topics essential for progress and development. At the international level, if the importance of the legal-diplomatic dimension, in which countries increasingly have sought a better understanding of its surrounding maritime spaces to sign cooperation treaties and conventions on the Rights of the Sea; and of Geopolitics, related to the interests of the world powers in guaranteeing, for their own military means, the security of maritime communication routes, from the control of islands, straits and passages through which world trade flows. For countries in the Global South, these issues are of utmost importance, considering that it is in this region that the oceanic masses are more voluminous: 83% in compared to emerged lands, which is 17%. Also called the Hemisphere Oceanic, this region is formed by all oceans (Indian, Atlantic, Pacific and Antarctic) and covers, for the most part, south of the Tropic of Cancer, encompassing South America, part of Asia and Africa, the entire Oceania and Antarctica. It should also be noted that Antarctica is seen as a resource frontier, while side of the seabed, which implies the development of technologies that Southern countries do not dominate. Added to this is the revision of the Antarctic statute in 2043 and the importance that the definition of an Antarctic Ocean can have in the sense of serving as a screen or instrument of confrontation over the frozen continent. All these diplomatic issues and arrangements alone justify the importance of taking a awareness of the importance of the Oceanopolitics dimension for the countries of the Southern Hemisphere.
Keywords: oceanpolitics, Southern Hemisphere, global south, south-south cooperation, maritime diplomacy